Contributing to debates about transitions and system changes, this article has two aims. First, it uses criticisms on the multi-level perspective as stepping stones for further conceptual refinements. Second, it develops a typology of four transition pathways: transformation, reconfiguration, technological substitution, and de-alignment and re-alignment. These pathways differ in combinations of timing and nature of multi-level interactions. They are illustrated with historical examples.

Keywords: Transition pathways, Sociotechnical regime, Multi-level perspective

This publication is cited as: Frank Geels and Johan Schot, ‘Typology of Sociotechnical Transition Pathways’, Research Policy (2007), 36 (3), 399-417.

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